Margalla Papers https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site <p><strong>Margalla Papers</strong> is a biannual publication of <a href="https://ndu.edu.pk"><strong>National Defence University</strong></a>, the premier institution for security and strategic studies. The journal is a unique publication of the country, which primarily deals with the issues related to Contemporary World Politics, Globalization, Foreign Policy, Strategic and Economic Relationships, Regional Organizations, UN Peacekeeping Operations, International Law and Global Commons. The journal has its standing among the students, researchers, experts, policymakers and intelligentsia. Keeping the flag high, all the articles appearing in the journal are selected after rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad. It is duly recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. The journal is being published regularly since 1997.</p> <p> </p> en-US <p>License Terms</p> editormargallapapers@ndu.edu.pk (Editor Margalla Papers) webmaster@ndu.edu.pk (Webmaster) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL SECURITY: CONTEMPORARY DISCOURSE https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/94 <p>National security has evolved both into a discipline of study and a sphere of policy application. It is a commonly used phrase in strategic literature and international statecraft. The modern concepts of national security arose in the 17th century during the Thirty Years War in Europe and the Civil War in England, and it was considered in terms of state sovereignty. In the aftermath of World War II, the concept of national security evolved into superpower contestation, also called the Cold War. During this period, national security had been seen through the prism of military security of the state against external threats – traditional security. In the US, the national security concept transited into a normative paradigm when President Truman signed the National Security Act on July 26, 1947, which also led to the establishment of the US National Security Council. Some 21 variants of the National Security Council exist in 51 countries today. The concept of national security is also seen from the prism of the concept of national power and elements of national power that include diplomacy, information operations, military, economic, financial, intelligence operations and law enforcement – commonly referred to as DIMEFIL. States either have national security policies or strategies and some – including Pakistan, publish an unclassified version for public distribution. Contemporary national security discourse adjusts to and even shapes the geopolitical environment. It has gradually evolved into a concept called comprehensive national security. It is an inclusive framework that encompasses all internal and external affairs of the state and society. Comprehensive national security helps safeguard both national security interests and human security requirements.</p> Ehsan Mehmood Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/94 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 INDIAN POLITICAL DOCTRINES: UNDERSTANDING INTERNAL SECURITY DYNAMICS OF INDIA IMPACTING PAKISTAN https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/95 <p>Strategic culture involves diplomatic ties, geopolitical orientation and political ideology involving the military. India’s strategic culture orientates pro-nationalist policies, emphasizing the business progression of a specific class, discriminating in exercising minority rights, and imbalancing diplomatic ties with neighbouring states for regional <br />hegemony. Indian leadership, from Jawaharlal Nehru to Narendra Modi, has kept regional dominance as a primary Indian strategic objective. More importantly, the Indian strategic community has carefully maintained narrative linking insurgencies with its neighbours, especially Pakistan. A cross-sectional analysis of Indian political doctrines explains how internal security challenges of India are shaping its strategic culture and stance towards Pakistan. It includes contextualizing the concept of strategic culture and modelling Indian strategic culture to the scope of research. The impact of Indian strategic culture on Pakistan is multi-dimensional, ranging from combat capabilities to international presence at international forums like the UN and FATF. The research proposes policy options and <br />action points for Pakistan. The paper establishes three fundamental aspects. First, the Indian strategic thoughts are rooted in Kautilyian discourse. Second, linking Pakistan with insurgencies in India. Third, with the rise of Hindutva through the BJP with a conducive geostrategic environment, India has resorted to an offensive-defensive strategy towards Pakistan. With these interpretations, the research paves the way for identifying policy options for Pakistan while considering Pakistan’s national interests.</p> Tassawar Aziz Malik; Sehrish Qayyum Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/95 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 EMPLOYING NATION BRANDING AND PUBLIC DIPLOMACY: STRATEGIES FOR PAKISTAN https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/96 <p>In the 21st century, states use nation-branding techniques to safeguard their national interests. They employ public diplomacy strategies to maintain their international image. Through branding techniques and public diplomacy strategies, nations can build a positive image among the committee of nations. It is argued in this paper that the <br />international image of Pakistan is required to be improved, and there is a need to shun the notion of negative characteristics associated with terrorism, religious extremism, Talibanization, and allegedly branding as a failed state. There is also a need to study the mindset for conducting various surveys about Pakistan’s image and its sponsors. The main argument of this research work is that Pakistan has all the variables required for nation branding and building positive public perception. To improve its international image, Pakistan has to adopt innovative nation-branding techniques and public diplomacy strategies. </p> Saima Ashraf Kayani; Muhammad Saif ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/96 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR AIRPOWER TO COUNTER NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/97 <p>The early theorists had conceived airpower to break the adversary's will and achieve decisive impact; however, technological deficiencies and weak strategies prevented airpower from doing so. Later, especially in the second half of the 20th century, advancements in technology and the advent of new concepts developed airpower as a<br />military tool of the first choice to achieve strategic advantages. Traditionally, states remained the referent objects and a prime focus for national security, but post-cold war developments witnessed the emergence of a non-traditional security paradigm, increasingly making individuals referent objects of security. This security dimension<br />primarily affected individuals and ideational aspects and led to the developing of a new identity-based construct with increasing political, economic, military, environmental, and societal influences. This paper highlights that despite the remarkable advancements in airpower technology and its ever-increasing role as a critical military instrument, its effectiveness in dealing with security threats and achieving a decisive victory in situations <br />complexed by non-traditional threats remains ambiguous. Considering terrorism as a social construction allows investigation into unthinkable policies to counter it. Nevertheless, the main objective of the policy perhaps can be the deconstruction of the undesirable construct whereby airpower, enabled with modern technology, can act as a <br />leading military component.</p> Amjad Mahmood Bhatti Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/97 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 CHANGING GLOBAL ORDER AND POWER REALIGNMENTS IN SOUTHWEST ASIA (ECO REGION) https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/107 <p>The global political and economic system is undergoing radical transformations, which might not be as obvious, but they are fast changing the existing global order. The weakening of US global hegemony, the gain of Chinese economic might and its increasing influence, the establishment of right-wing populist governments across the world, the prolonged conflicts in the Middle East, the NATO withdrawal from Afghanistan, and the recent Ukraine crisis have caused governments to re-assess their foreign policy priorities and to realign themselves in the changing global order. For Russia and China, the emerging new global order should be based on multipolarity and allowed to be developed in different ways. The region of Southwest Asia, as a subset of the international system, is restructuring and realigning itself with the changing geopolitical realities to bring coherence and stability within and across the region. This paper argues that the region's geostrategic importance is instrumental in facilitating the emergence of multipolar global order. Moreover, the new political arrangements also allow the regional states to look beyond western dominance and realign themselves for greater cooperation and stability. There have been predictions that the ECO region could become a centre of global power struggle and play a key role in transforming the global order from unipolar to multipolar. </p> Ayesha Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/107 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 INDIAN MILITARY DOCTRINE AND ITS IMPACT ON SOUTH ASIA’S STRATEGIC STABILITY https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/98 <p>India’s aggressive military doctrine exploits the questionable space for a limited war under a nuclear overhang. This doctrine is designed to dilute, if not fully compromise, the notion of nuclear deterrence. Indian military high command has often boasted about waging a conventional war against Pakistan. India’s unilateral decision to repeal Kashmir’s special constitutional status has further exacerbated the volatility of the hitherto conflict-prone environment in South Asia. India’s doctrine manifests in the offensive deployment of S-400 missile systems along Pakistan’s border, further supplemented by the positioning of Dassault Rafale fighter jets. While it might temporarily alter the region’s strategic stability equation, Pakistan must rebalance this shift in its strategic stability. There is a need to review the notion of strategic stability as it applies to the region’s nuclear balance of power. This paper analyses India’s aggressive military doctrine fuelling its desire to wage a limited conventional war against Pakistan, examines the effects of growing military asymmetry, evaluates the impact of the short but swift military action in February 2019, and finally endeavours to determine the stabilizing impact of the nuclear deterrent on South Asia’s strategic stability.</p> Muhammad Ali; Syed Mussawar Hussain Bukhari Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/98 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 POWER REALIGNMENT IN SOUTH ASIA – AN OUTCOME OF BRI (CPEC) https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/99 <p>Pakistan and China, through CPEC, have uplifted decade’s old and time-tested bondage to the zenith of economic cooperation on a win-win basis. In the Chinese equation, BRI (CPEC – an integral part of BRI) is an initiative for the economic integration of the global community in the 21st century. In contrast, the US endeavours to ensure the <br />implementation of international order at sea through its Indo-Pacific strategy. Considerable academic work has been undertaken distinctly on the US Indo-Pacific strategy and BRI (CPEC); however, scanty academic efforts have been made on future power realignment in South Asia. By employing Mahan’s theory of sea power, this paper <br />explains the future maritime scenario in South Asia, which will evolve due to the power contestation of global players in the Indian Ocean and the formulation of two distinct power blocks with the US and China as leading players. It also answers how Indian Ocean littorals will align themselves in this great powers’ contestation. An in-depth understanding of the economic interests of Indian Ocean littorals through BRI and gaining benefits through a strategic partnership with the US will provide insight into future power realignment in South Asia. The paper concludes that China will likely formulate collaborative maritime security arrangements with BRI partners who will become Chinese allies to secure energy requirements. Likewise, India, Japan, South Korea and the US (under QUAD) will endeavour to impede China's economic progress, forming a power block in the Indian Ocean region.</p> Asma Shakir Khawaja; Imran Raza Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/99 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 SAUDI-IRAN RAPPROCHEMENT AND CHALLENGES FOR PAKISTAN https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/100 <p>Saudi-Iran relations have been continuously evolving, with regional and global implications. Though religious differences make up a large part of this relationship, it is not all. Multiethnicity, Arab versus Persian domination, and divergence of interests of regional and extra-regional players are also significant. The two regional heavyweights <br />have driven the neighbouring states towards alliances of varying natures. It has repercussions for Pakistan due to its security, economic concerns, and religious and sectarian fault lines. Opportunely, the current political environment is developing prospects to rebuild relations. After unfinished rapprochement efforts by Pakistan, Iraq has recently made the latest endeavour of arbitration. This paper analyses the effects of SaudiIran contention on Pakistan and the scope and implications of the current rapprochement effort. Primarily, the qualitative method has been used, and it has been established that due to the complexities of a relationship, achieving peace is not as easy as it appears. Also, from Pakistan’s perspective, escalation levels should ideally remain below the threshold of a <br />dispute necessitating precise positions and above a minimum threshold of complete peace to keep Pakistan’s security-related relevance. Therefore, diplomatic efforts should be limited to de-escalating conflicts rather than mediating them. </p> Aamir Saleem; Syed Mussawar Hussain Bukhari Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/100 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN SOUTH ASIA: UTOPIA OR REALITY? https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/101 <p>South Asia comprises almost one-quarter of the world’s population. It faces a host of disputes of varying natures, including armed conflicts, proxy wars, and religious and ethnic strife. Despite its deplorable state of human security and impoverished people, South Asia is considered the least integrated region globally. Approximately 1.99 billion people suffer in terms of energy, food, water and health security due to conflicts and hostile interstate <br />relationships. This paper analyses the socio-political and security environment of the region and explores the impediments to regional integration. Focusing on the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, it highlights that the idea of regional integration cannot be realized without resolving core issues. Economic cooperation between regional countries can only be achieved if integration models like the European Union and <br />Association of South East Asian Nations are considered with necessary deviations.</p> Muhammad Tariq Niaz Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/101 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 STRATEGIC CULTURE AND INTER-STATE RELATIONS: A CASE OF PAKISTAN AND INDIA https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/102 <p>Geography, culture and history play a central role in shaping a nation's perceptions, biases and images of adversaries. The combination of these factors constitutes strategic culture. Strategic communities tend to adopt diverse approaches to interpreting, analysing and reacting to a given situation. They may incline to pick peculiar strategic choices, such as using force or relying on external alliances, while not opting for a range of others. Decisions and choices are affected by patterns of thinking that evolved over the years. Strategic culture has evolved and generated significant discussion on theoretical frameworks and potential applications in a regional and international security context. Pakistan-India strategic equation is a complex phenomenon, fraught with hostility and mistrust, impregnated with conventional and non-conventional hazards. India views Pakistan as a stumbling block in realising her power ambition, while Pakistan considers India an existential threat. The article analyses the effect of strategic culture on inter-state relations with emphasis on Pakistan-India relations. Unique historical events, geography, the influence of dominant strategic strata and perception biases shape respective strategic <br />cultures. It further analyses strategic culture based on Hofstede's Model, besides pondering upon symbols and philosophical influences.</p> Shehzad Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/102 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 BOOK REVIEW: XI JINPING: THE GOVERNANCE OF CHINA https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/103 <p>Since 2017, Xi Jinping’s thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a ‘New Era’ has been the guiding principle for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). President Xi has been able to synthesize his vision and mission to restore China to its ancient preeminence and glory. This book is more inspiring than any vision emerging in the 21st century. More than 60 million people lifted out of poverty and over 13 million urban jobs created yearly are life- affirming. China is impressive as a torch bearer in the global endeavor to build an economic civilization through green development, national parks and solidarity with the struggling majority. With the economic opening up, Xi Jinping’s insistence on building a moderately prosperous society in all its respects has crystallized the Party's wisdom and the people's alignment with its history, theory and practice. “When the Great Way rules, this land under heaven belongs to the people.</p> Lubna Abid Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/103 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 BOOK REVIEW: THE FIFTH ESTATE: THINK TANKS, PUBLIC POLICY AND GOVERNANCE https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/104 <p>The book is all-inclusive research on think tanks’ role in governance and public policy processes, specifically in the US. The author defines Fifth Estate as attributed to research institutes, scholarly networks, political parties and policy analysts. The comprehensive role of think tanks is due to their lasting impact on governance and the<br />administration of global civil society. Their ever-increasing role and involvement in public policy discourse are unlikely to lessen in coming times.</p> Khadija Younus Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/104 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 BOOK REVIEW: THE 33 STRATEGIES OF WAR https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/105 <p>The 33 Strategies of War showcases a guide to understanding everyday life’s social conduct conversant to military principles in war. Robert Greene is an American author who wrote several books on strategy. The book, in hand, contains 33 chapters divided into five parts. It accounts for discourses and examples of offensive and defensive strategies within various conditions and by people like Sun Tzu, Napoleon Bonaparte and Alexander.</p> Muhammad Umar Pervaiz Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/105 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500 BOOK REVIEW: THE POWER OF GEOGRAPHY: TEN MAPS THAT REVEAL THE FUTURE OF OUR WORLD https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/106 <p>The power of geography is all about the geographical significance of a state. It is not every time that major powers will decide the fate of all states; sometimes geography, whether human, political or environmental, all play a significant role in standardizing the relative power capability of states. Marshall claims that smaller states with <br />geographical significance also have much say in international politics and changing world environment. The book discusses states, regions and, most importantly, space that will impact international politics in the coming era. Author has discussed five geographically important regions and states within these regions. Indo-Pacific through <br />Australia, Africa through The Sahel and Ethiopia, Europe through the UK, Turkey, Greece and Spain, the Middle East through Iran and Saudi Arabia, and lastly, space will be the focus of the coming generation in international politics. For these entities, geography has proven a power.</p> Muhammad Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/106 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0500