Margalla Papers https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site <p><strong>Margalla Papers</strong> is a biannual publication of <strong>National Defence University</strong>, the premier institution for security and strategic studies. The journal is a unique publication of the country, which primarily deals with the issues related to Contemporary World Politics, Globalization, Foreign Policy, Strategic and Economic Relationships, Regional Organizations, UN Peacekeeping Operations, International Law and Global Commons. The journal has its standing among the students, researchers, experts, policymakers and intelligentsia. Keeping the flag high, all the articles appearing in the journal are selected after rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad. It is duly recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. The journal is being published regularly since 1997.</p> <p> </p> National Defence University en-US Margalla Papers 1999-2297 <p>License Terms</p> FOREIGN POLICY IN HYBRID WARFARE ENVIRONMENT – WAY FORWARD FOR PAKISTAN https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/46 <p><em>Hybrid warfare is neither a novel idea nor a new phenomenon. It has been evolving for ages, yet its manifestation in the contemporary era has intensified. Taking advantage of politico-ethnic fault lines, socio-religious vulnerabilities, and identity conflicts, hybrid warfare advocates using all means available including regular or irregular and conventional or unconventional ways of warfare to subdue the will of an adversary. An externally motivated and supported threat requires essential measures in the foreign policy domain to thwart and foil it outside the borders. Therefore, this paper deals with the conceptual aspects of hybrid warfare and highlights the contours of the hybrid threat currently confronting Pakistan. It navigates through the challenges for foreign policy formulation and implementation in a hybrid warfare environment and identifies loopholes and grey areas while recommending tangible measures.&nbsp; </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Naz, Imtiaz Hussain. 2021. "Foreign Policy in Hybrid Warfare Environment – Way Forward for Pakistan." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 1-11.</p> Imtiaz Hussain Naz Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 1 11 GLOBAL WARMING CHALLENGES AND TACTICAL RAMIFICATIONS: ADDRESSING ECOLOGICAL SECURITY CONCERNS https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/47 <p><em>Humanity has been facing frequent trials in the contemporary era. One seriously emerging challenge is global warming. It has a record of disastrous impacts on earth that are severe and cataclysmic. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change attributes mega-disasters to global warming. These environmental calamities have raised serious concerns for leaders, scientists, environmentalists as well as public. The defence experts warn about gradually changing weather tendencies and emerging of new security challenges. Global warming is causing continuous fluctuations in our fragile ecosystem, and any persistent malfunctioning in the ecosystem would affect the politico-economic, strategic, and even very existence of humanity. It would require rational choices and new strategic approaches for saving humanity and numerous organism species under global warming impacts. Strategists, in the future, will inevitably explore looming tactical security concerns to safeguard defence capabilities. Against this backdrop, this paper argues that global warming will create severe strategic complications. In the coming decades, traditional national defence systems will have to undergo a new transformation supportive to cope with emerging cataclysmic security issues due to global warming. Therefore, innovative lines of tactical ecological rationale will become an essential part of national defence.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali, Shaheen Akhtar, and Fozia Bibi. 2021. "Global Warming Challenges and Tactical Ramifications: Addressing Ecological Security Concerns." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 12-22.</p> Syed Muhammad Ali Shah Shaheen Akhtar Fozia Bibi Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 12 22 EXPLAINING JAMMU AND KASHMIR CONFLICT UNDER INDIAN ILLEGAL OCCUPATION: PAST AND PRESENT https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/48 <p><em>The Jammu and Kashmir conflict remains one of the oldest UN agenda items. However, despite the genuine plight and legitimate demand for the right to self-determination, Kashmiris in Indian Illegally Occupied Jammu and Kashmir continue to struggle for their lives and livelihood under Indian oppression and state-sponsored terrorism without respite. This paper, therefore, attempts to glean into the history of the conflict, which has a strong connection with the contemporary situation, while answering important questions: What circumstances compelled people to rush to Kashmir soon after the independence? How has India, over the decades, interpreted, misinterpreted, and manipulated world opinion in its favour? Why and how have the Muslim world and international community shown apathy towards the beleaguered Kashmiris? Lastly, can there be a way forward, especially after India’s illegal annexation of the UN declared disputed territory? It also highlights options available for a plausible solution to this humanitarian issue.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Malik, Salma, and Nasreen Akhtar. 2021. "Explaining Jammu and Kashmir Conflict under Indian Illegal Occupation: Past and Present." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 23-35.</p> Salma Malik Nasreen Akhtar Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 23 35 CHINA’S ROLE IN EAST ASIA DURING POST-COLD WAR ERA: AN ANALYSIS FROM UNEVEN AND COMBINED DEVELOPMENT https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/49 <p><em>In the post-Maoist era, a new approach was introduced in China, which opened China’s markets for foreign investments besides harvesting cordial relations, especially with its neighbours. It helped China emerge as a global power to such a level where the US regards China as a potential competitor. To protect its strategic interests in the East Asian region, the US has introduced a ‘Pivot to Asia’ policy posing a direct threat to China’s trade passing through the South China Sea routes. China has already embarked upon an intercontinental connectivity initiative known as One Belt One Road to bypass the US presence in East Asia. The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is its flagship project which allows China to diversify its trade routes and decrease its dependence on the South China Sea. This paper, therefore, investigates China’s behavioural change in East Asia, especially in the post-Cold War era, by applying the theory of Uneven and Combined Development presented by Leon Trotsky. It aims to understand the US policy of containment of China in East Asia and significance of Pakistan in the Chinese approach towards reducing external pressures.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Jibran, Ali. 2021. "China’s Role in East Asia during Post-Cold War Era: An Analysis from Uneven and Combined Development." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 36-47.</p> Ali Jibran Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 36 47 TRANSFORMATION OF INDIAN NATIONALISM AND ‘OTHERIZATION’ OF MUSLIMS IN INDIA https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/50 <p><em>India has altered its military stratagem under the Modi government from nuclear deterrence to offensive defence. The constant use of offensive defence in the milieu of deliberate political aggression against Pakistan and victimization of the Muslim community in India is making Indian military doctrine a hostage of hyper-nationalistic politics of Hindutva. Since its rise to power, the BJP government has conflated anti-Muslim and anti-Pakistan approaches. Pakistan remains a crucial factor in its domestic, diplomatic, and foreign policy rhetoric. The internal discord and surge of violence against the Muslim population, as evident by 2020-riots in north-eastern New Delhi, are indicative of vigorous reforming of the national identity of India dominated by Hindutva ideology. Therefore, this paper addresses Hindu nationalism, which arose as a political ideology and caused an insecure environment for Indian Muslims while becoming precarious for Pakistan. It infers that Hindu nationalism, along with its assimilation approach towards minorities, is gradually asserting exclusionary conception of a state where cultural and political centrality of Hindutva has become a core theme.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Shahzad, Aisha, Sadia Mahmood Falki, and Asma Sana Bilal. 2021. "Transformation of Indian Nationalism and ‘Otherization’ of Muslims in India." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 48-58.</p> Aisha Shahzad Sadia Mahmood Falki Asma Sana Bilal Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 48 58 EVOLVING NATURE OF PAK-SAUDI RELATIONSHIP https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/51 <p><em>Pak–Saudi relations are exclusive, cordial, and strategic. The elementary features of this exceptional relationship are strong religious affinity, bilateral resolve, assured support, and pragmatism. This resilient and all-weather relationship started much before the Kingdom became oil-rich. Since the beginning of the 1950s, Pak-Saudi relations have been witnessing an upward trajectory in all diplomatic fields, including political, economic, social, and strategic cooperation. While attaining dynamism in their bilateral relationship, both countries urge more exclusivity, steadiness, and perpetuity in their relations as reinforcing factors. The role of national institutions of both countries has been commendable in evolving and consolidating their traditional bondage. This paper, therefore, underlines the need that despite changes in the regional and global geopolitical situations, both countries must extend unwavering support to each other on the issues of their national interests, regional security, and sustainable development.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Khan, Muhammad, and Sidra Khan. 2021. "Evolving Nature of Pak-Saudi Relationship." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 59-69.</p> Muhammad Khan Sidra Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 59 69 ONLINE AND OFFLINE MANIFESTATION OF HINDUTVA IDEOLOGY IN INDIA DURING THE COVID-19 SPREAD https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/52 <p><em>Towards the end of January 2020, COVID-19 made its headway into India. The irresponsible behaviour of the Modi government in containing the spread of Coronavirus forced it to opt for an ill-planned and hastily imposed lockdown. Meanwhile, the poor health infrastructure of the country collapsed. This outbreak also tested the socio-cultural robustness and religious tolerance in India. Pro-Hindutva media outlets and Hindu nationalists employed hate speech to securitize this outbreak as a Muslims-led controversy against India. Furthermore, pseudoscience-based remedies were portrayed as a potential cure for COVID-19. The online disinformation ecosystem of Hindutva extremist groups against minorities used trending campaigns, memes, and sharing of false content. They posted Islamophobic content so extensively that the impact of online disinformation contributed to offline harm to minorities in the form of violent attacks and social boycotts. This paper, therefore, analyses the online and offline activities of Hindu extremists and nationalists during the spread of COVID-19. It concludes with emphasis that the ongoing metamorphosis in the relationship between state, society, and religion in India is a pressing concern for the civilized world, especially the Indian political elite.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Nabeel, Fahad, and Maryam Raashed. 2021. "Online and Offline Manifestation of Hindutva Ideology in India during the Covid-19 Spread." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 70-80.</p> Fahad Nabeel Maryam Raashed Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 70 80 CHINA’S GRAND STRATEGY IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: AN ENGLISH SCHOOL PERSPECTIVE https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/53 <p><em>Grand Strategy determines the ultimate goals and interests of a state. It has long-term effects on state policies. With the advent of the 21<sup>st</sup> century, China has emerged as a regional and global power. After entering the new era of development, China set specific goals and decided to achieve them, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. These goals are to convert China into a prosperous society, increase per capita income at par with developed states and realize modernization. In 2013, Xi Jinping announced China’s Grand Strategy, while stating that the period extended to 2020 (and beyond) is the era of strategic opportunity for China. This article discusses China’s Grand Strategy in the Asia-Pacific region. First, it conceptualizes Chinese strategy by focusing on its main objectives and interests. Secondly, it analyses its components while identifying how China is utilizing its economic, political, diplomatic, and security means to secure its interests in the region and maintain regional order. It also examines Chinese foreign policy in the Asia-Pacific region according to the institutions of international society described by Hadley Bull.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Manzoor, Saima. 2021. "China’s Grand Strategy in the Asia-Pacific Region: An English School Perspective." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 81-91.</p> Saima Manzoor Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 81 91 RESISTANCE OF WOMEN AGAINST INDIAN ILLEGAL OCCUPATION OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR: THEIR INVISIBILITY DURING PEACE NEGOTIATIONS https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/54 <p><em>Kashmiri female freedom fighters have remained at the forefront of the resistance movement, rallies, protest marches, and sit-ins. Unfortunately, their activism is invisible, and they have lagged during the dialogue process. The peace negotiations go awry to address the concerns, specific needs, approaches, views, and grievances of women during and after conflict situations. The UN has long been trying to address the concerns of women through varied resolutions, but the implementation of these mandates remains a formidable challenge. This research paper, therefore, aims to analyse the resistance and activism of Kashmiri women for their inalienable right of self-determination against the Indian Illegal Occupation of Jammu and Kashmir. The problem of Kashmiri women’s visibility in the resistance movement and their invisibility in the peace process is seen through the theoretical framework of Feminist Security Studies. For the textual interpretation and contextualization of data, Qualitative Content Analysis is employed. A way forward to address women’s issues and approaches during conflict situations is to implement the UN landmark Resolution-1325 on ‘Women, Peace, and Security’ by involving women in all stages of conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Raazia, Izzat, and Saqib ur Rehman. 2021. "Resistance of Women against Indian Illegal Occupation of Jammu and Kashmir: Their Invisibility during Peace Negotiations." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 92-102.</p> Izzat Raazia Saqib Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 92 102 RISE OF CHINA: GROWING STRATEGIC COMPETITION BETWEEN THE US AND CHINA https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/55 <p><em>The emergence of China as a great power is indubitably one of the greatest perplexities in the international arena since the cold war era. Similarly, it poses challenges to the strategic position of the US. The economic and technological height of China has now become a big question mark for the US hegemony. The US has adopted some essential policies and actions like the B3W initiative and Strategic Competition Act of 2021, which label China a strategic competitor in multiple areas, including economics, technology, and military security. Such actions and policies by the US generate growing strategic competition between Beijing and Washington. However, the Chinese political elite has reservations that the US wants to curb the expansion of Chinese influence. This paper, therefore, analyses how strategic competition between China and the US increases with the rise of China, particularly after China’s BRI, and how China poses a challenge or an opportunity for the US. This paper employs the Power-transition theory as an analytical framework to investigate the power transition debated among policymakers in the US and China.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Ali, Irfan, and Rubina Ali. 2021. "Rise of China: Growing Strategic Competition between the US and China." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 103-114.</p> Irfan Ali Rubina Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 103 114 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ISLAMIC LAWS OF WAR AND IHL – POINTS OF CONVERGENCE FOR UNIVERSAL CONSENSUS ON LAWS OF WAR https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/56 <p><em>In contemporary times, wars are not taking place in a legal vacuum. There are laws available on resorting to force and conduct of hostilities, including Islamic Laws of war and International Humanitarian Law (IHL). These legal regimes trace their origins in the teaching of elders that have further translated into rules and principles to limit the destructive nature of an armed conflict. Both systems are primarily concerned about regulating the behaviour of belligerents to avoid and at least minimize the sufferings of combatants and non-combatants in the theatre of war. This paper explores Islamic values and rules on the conduct of hostilities and compares them with similar provisions of IHL by using a comparative analysis approach. The objective of this study is not to judge Islamic Laws of war in contrast to IHL or vice versa but addresses the points of convergence. It analyses whether there is any significant difference between these two legal systems in observing principles and ethics of warfare, and provides a way out for humanization.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Gardezi, Syed Mahmood Akhter Hussain. 2021. "Comparative Study of Islamic Laws of War and IHL – Points of Convergence for Universal Consensus on Laws of War." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (1): 115-130.</p> Syed Mahmood Akhter Hussain Gardezi Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 115 130 DECLINING US STATUS AS A SUPERPOWER: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WORLD ORDER https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/57 <p><em>Since 1945, the US has been relishing the status of a superpower by following its interests through a no of means, including international order, global and regional security arrangements, and international organizations. Recently, emerging global powers have challenged the existing international order, whereas the US is on a declining trajectory. The US hegemonic obligations to use its preponderant power in global issues with the intent to cast events in its favour have brought an inevitable overstretch beyond its capacity. Furthermore. a visible shift in power centres, the backlash of political decisions, and economic recession are other factors that need to be studied. This paper, therefore, explores the highly debated and contested reasons for the US decline. While employing deductive reasoning through qualitative analysis, it evaluates the efficacy of existing international order, emerging multilateralism, and difficulties in obviating the attendant risks to US security and prosperity. Implications of a declining superpower and suggested course of action for Pakistan have also been discussed in this paper.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;Abbas, Muhammad, and Hassan Jalil Shah. 2021. “Declining US Status as a Superpower: Implications for the World Order.” Magalla Papers 25 (1): 131-142.</p> Muhammad Abbas Hassan Jalil Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 131 142 CORPORATE MEDIA MANIPULATION IN THE US WARS: A CASE STUDY OF IRAQ WAR https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/58 <p><em>Media, as a source of information, plays a crucial role in opinion-making and perception-building. During the Iraq War (2003), the media's role was to shape the images of war while propagating specific ideas to influence the people. As a result, the world perceived propagandistic messages that appeared to take the form of fake news. The disinformation campaign was designed to profess the threat of weapons of mass destruction and explicate Saddam Hussein's affiliation with terrorist organizations as a threat to the world. The instantly shared live images, videos, recordings, and pictures across mass media platforms elicited shock, dismay, and disbelief throughout the world. With this insight, this paper attempts to comprehend the role of media propaganda which promoted the agenda of a media spectacle of the US military victory by transforming into a presentation of anarchy that destabilizes the rationale behind the invasion. It also provides an overview of the development of the Iraq War through the lens of the Herman-Chomsky Propaganda model. This model elucidates the role of propaganda in manipulating the opinion of the Iraqi people and how it was used to achieve economic, social, and political advantages.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Javed, Huma, and Arshi Saleem Hashmi. 2021. “Corporate Media Manipulation in the US Wars: A Case Study of Iraq War.” Magalla Papers 25 (1): 143-152.</p> Huma Javed Arshi Saleem Hashmi Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 25 1 143 152