Margalla Papers https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site <p><strong>Margalla Papers</strong> is a biannual publication of <a href="https://ndu.edu.pk"><strong>National Defence University</strong></a>, the premier institution for security and strategic studies. The journal is a unique publication of the country, which primarily deals with the issues related to Contemporary World Politics, Globalization, Foreign Policy, Strategic and Economic Relationships, Regional Organizations, UN Peacekeeping Operations, International Law and Global Commons. The journal has its standing among the students, researchers, experts, policymakers and intelligentsia. Keeping the flag high, all the articles appearing in the journal are selected after rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad. It is duly recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. The journal is being published regularly since 1997.</p> <p> </p> National Defence University en-US Margalla Papers 1999-2297 <p>License Terms</p> LAOZI’S PHILOSOPHY: ITS COMPARISON WITH WESTERN THOUGHTS AND APPLICATION ON PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN RELATIONS https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/68 <p><em>The complex Pakistan-Afghanistan relations always engage policymakers on both sides of the border. Their concerns towards each other have been changing the socio-political environment intermittently due to internal and external dynamics coupled with historical legacies. This study, therefore, covers the post-independence period, the Soviet Union’s communist influence in Afghanistan, the rise of the Taliban, and the post-9/11 era. It employs Lao Tzu’s philosophy which advocates the overarching features of domestic politics, global governance, and statecraft to address the prevailing intricacies in Pakistan and Afghanistan foreign policies. It discusses vital concepts and approaches of softness, normalness, and actionless action at the individual, state, and system levels while carving out institutionalized foreign policy orientations between the two neighbours. The paper also considers the western thought of realism paradigm through which peace in the region remained elusive. It deliberates upon Lao Tzu’s philosophy which lays down the foundation of the political order in a natural, peaceful and balanced way.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Mirza, Zahid Latif. 2021. "Laozi’s Philosophy: Its Comparison with Western Thoughts and Application on Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 1-13.</p> <p> </p> Zahid Latif Mirza Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 1 13 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.68 THE RISE OF THE FIFTH WAVE OF GLOBAL TERRORISM (ISLAMOPHOBIA) https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/69 <p><em>Post-9/11 framing of Islam in western intelligentsia and policymakers have given birth to a new way of global terrorism, i.e., Islamophobia, revolving around unfounded fear of Islam. Islamophobia is an internationally driven predominant energy – hatred against Muslims – which continues to shape the character of this new wave and relations among the perpetrators belonging to various parts of the world. Politically-driven framing of Muslims, Islam and one of its key tenants – Jihad – by the western media has heralded transnational terrorism (the Fifth Wave of terrorism), which fulfils all the essential prerequisites. Therefore, the theoretical framework of this paper peeps through the Four Waves Theory of modern terrorism put forth by David Rapoport to examine whether the current rise of Islamophobic violence in different parts of the world qualifies to be the Fifth Global Wave of terrorism. The paper delineates how Muslims have been discriminated against and demonized worldwide. It also unfolds how religious-linked terrorism has been exploited, resulting in Islamophobia, which has turned into a transcultural and transnational threat.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Jalil, Muhammad Raza. 2021. "The Rise of the Fifth Wave of Global Terrorism (Islamophobia)." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 14-22. </p> Muhammad Raza Jalil Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 14 22 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.69 FROM INTERVENTION TO EXIT: AN ANALYSIS OF POST-9/11 US STRATEGIES IN AFGHANISTAN https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/70 <p><em>Following the US exit from Afghanistan, the debate revolves around why US intervention in Afghanistan, the longest and one of the most expensive in its history, has failed in defeating the Taliban and realising a durable state-building. The debate considers endogenous factors that explore US and Taliban strategies and exogenous factors that underline the role of regional and extra-regional actors in determining the outcome of the Afghan conflict. This paper, therefore, focuses on faults and inconsistencies within and across US strategies in Afghanistan, i.e., the use of military force, political settlement, and state-building. It also examines US strategies vis-à-vis conflict in Afghanistan under four US administrations – from Bush to Biden – to ascertain why these strategies proved ineffective. These strategies have been analysed by following the conceptual framework of Game Theory. The paper argues that US strategies for entering Afghanistan were detached from the ground realities, which was the critical factor for its failure to achieve the desired outcome of the conflict.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Shad, Muhammad Riaz, Sajid Iqbal. 2021. "From Intervention to Exit: An Analysis of Post-9/11 US Strategies in Afghanistan." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (2): 23-34.</p> Muhammad Riaz Shad Sajid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 23 34 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.70 CHINA’S EMERGENCE AS A POTENTIAL SUPERPOWER AND THE WORLD ORDER https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/89 <p><em>In the endemic world, the emergence of China as a potential superpower is surfacing. It has been a long evolutionary process from the coarse period to the age of prosperity that pushes China to an upward trajectory with its reform model for domestic and worldwide growth. Its economic and strategic directions are reaping fruits in the Belt and Road Initiative. Beijing’s goodwill has been endorsed by different countries of the world who wish to learn from the ascendancy of China on the world stage. However, with the rise of China, it is feared that it would have implications for the predominant world order. This paper, therefore, highlights the country’s political, economic, military, and social reforms by its distinctive Soft Power approach. China is becoming an influential power that cannot be ignored on the global horizon.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span lang="en-PK">Bibliography Entry</span></strong></p> <p><span lang="en-PK">Almotairi, Sager Ghalib. 2021. "China’s Emergence as a Potential Superpower and the World Order." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 35-46.</span></p> Sager Ghalib Almotairi Copyright (c) 2022 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 35 46 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.89 FAILURE OF ORGANIZATION OF ISLAMIC COOPERATION: A CASE OF DISMAL STATE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN KASHMIR AND PALESTINE https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/72 <p><em>A profound observation of human rights endorses democratic norms, socio-political stability, economic prosperity, and the rule of law. Almost all developed states ensure their citizens with the protection of fundamental rights, and, in return, community plays a critical role in nation-building. Many human rights activists and organizations highlight the shortcomings behind the promulgation of laws for human security and plan to maintain security. Some developing states have failed to copy the developed states' human rights policy framework, especially regarding the protection of human rights. They are either trying to deprive their minorities of fundamental rights or confiscating their territories while pushing them into deteriorated conditions. India and Israel are two prominent examples of this connection. This study, therefore, analyses how India is dealing with its minorities, especially Muslims in illegally occupied Jammu and Kashmir. It also calls attention to the expansionist policy of Israel, disposing of Palestinians from their territory, thus experiencing the worst form of human rights violations. The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) has also forgotten the objectives of its formation. Its leadership is dormant, which has paved the way for India and Israel to inflict more aggression on innocent Muslims. The study suggests that OIC leadership should be more active, saving Muslims from the worst kinds of human rights violations.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Shamshad, Muhammad, Farooq Arshad. 2021. "Failure of Organization of Islamic Cooperation: A Case of Dismal State of Human Rights in Kashmir and Palestine." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 47-60.</p> Muhammad Shamshad Farooq Arshad Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 47 60 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.72 NAGORNO-KARABAGH CONFLICT AND ROLE OF MAJOR POWERS: AN INTERNATIONAL LAW PERSPECTIVE https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/73 <p><em>Nagorno-Karabagh is a long-drawn-out conflict crafted around two competing positions identified as self-determination and state sovereignty. The political tactics of Stalin based on divide and rule and pan-Turkism in 1870 coupled with the Armenian genocide in 1914 fuelled the deep hatred and antagonism crammed between Azerbaijan and Armenia over the mountainous terrain of Nagorno-Karabagh. This paper attempts to comprehend the dynamic nature of this protracted conflict (in 2020) with the perspective of newly emerging regional alliances in the south Caucuses. It recognizes the convoluted regional interests that shaped a recipe of convergence between Azerbaijan, Russia, and Turkey that led to controlled chaos and one-sided settlement in Nagorno-Karabagh at the dispense of Karabagh Armenians. It addresses how this decisive war between Azerbaijan and Armenia transformed the landscape of future warfare. </em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Rashid, Asma. 2021. "Nagorno-Karabagh Conflict and Role of Major Powers: An International Law Perspective." <em>Margalla Papers</em> 25 (2): 61-70.</p> Asma Rashid Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 61 70 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.73 COUNTERING TERRORISM AND REDUCING STRATEGIC UNCERTAINTY: ANALYSING ‘SHAPING’ MULTINATIONAL MILITARY EXERCISES https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/74 <p><em>The post-Cold War period has witnessed a significant increase in ‘shaping’ multinational military exercises, which are considered a valuable instrument of defence diplomacy. Shaping multinational military exercises aim to encourage the partner military's role and adapt relationship to reduce strategic uncertainty. Since 2014, Pakistan’s conduct and participation in multinational military exercises have increased significantly. Pakistan conducts four such exercises to reduce strategic uncertainty: recruitment, capacity-building, role-forming, and trust-developing. This article, therefore, argues that Pakistan pursues shaping multinational military exercises to mould the strategic thinking of both friends and potential adversaries to achieve foreign policy goals in a complex security environment.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Bashir, Sadaf, Sumara Gul. 2021. "Countering Terrorism and Reducing Strategic Uncertainty: Analysing ‘Shaping’ Multinational Military Exercises." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 71-83.</p> Sadaf Bashir Sumara Gul Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 71 83 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.74 POWER POLITICS OF SPORTS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND ITS EFFECTS ON CRICKET https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/75 <p><em>Sports can influence people like all other cultural activities. They act as a diplomatic tool to alleviate tensions and improve ties between states. Millions worldwide follow their favourite sports passionately; however, states and leaders sometimes exploit these feelings to further their political agenda. There are examples of cricket diplomacy when relations between states (Pakistan and India) were tense, and it helped normalize the situation but never securitised itself. Securitization of sports is a recent phenomenon that, unfortunately, has marred the beauty of cricket. Political theorists suggest that existing issues of even low politics can hold more sway and attention among the masses if proponents of these issues succeed in securitizing them. Hence, by securitizing an innocuous subject like cricket, matters of low politics have been dragged into the domain of high politics. The recent abandonment of cricket tour to Pakistan by the New Zealand cricket team is an example of getting high politics into sports. This article, therefore, explores the dynamic power of sports in international relations besides analysing the role of high politics in cricket. It accentuates that punishing a country politically by depriving it of hosting international teams can disservice cricket, though it is a diplomatic tool for peace.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Qadeer, Abdul. 2021. "Power Politics of Sports in International Relations and Its Effects on Cricket." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 84-90.</p> Abdul Qadeer Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 84 90 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.75 CHANGING US WAR POLITICS IN SOUTHWEST ASIA AND REGIONAL COOPERATION THROUGH CPEC https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/80 <p><em>The changing dynamics of international politics with US military withdrawal from Afghanistan have affected the Southwest Asian geopolitical landscape. While international players have their interests, they involve regional and neighbouring states in their actions frequently; thus, regional complexities arise. Pakistan was engaged in peaceful execution of the US exit strategy from Afghanistan; however, it demanded an overall shift in policy in a changing regional environment. Besides, Pakistan's strategic and economic cooperation with China through CPEC has further enforced its prospects to be a significant player in regional politics. Pakistan's challenges are countering India's regional hegemonic designs and aggressiveness in Indian illegally occupied Kashmir, maintaining a neutral stance over the Iranian front vis-a-vis Saudi Arabia, and addressing the TTP factor. Despite international players' competition, Pakistan has multiple options for attaining balance through CPEC and shifting from competition to cooperation. This paper, therefore, analyses international players' security interests in the region and suggests openings for Pakistan through CPEC considering Regional Security Complex theory.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Gul, Saima, Shamaila Farooq. 2021. "Changing US War Politics in Southwest Asia and Regional Cooperation through CPEC." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 91-97.</p> Saima Gul Shamaila Farooq Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 91 97 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.80 CLIMATE CHANGE ACTION AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/77 <p><em>Climate change is a reality recognized globally. Although global efforts are accelerating, there are fears in the underdeveloped world regarding the erosion of their sovereignty through climate change action and response mechanisms. Remedial actions taken at various levels are not a compensating reflection of this reality. There is a need to establish a well-thought-out mechanism and support fast-track climate change action and responses. This study, therefore, highlights the impact of climate change action on state sovereignty through in-depth analysis by interviewing climate experts and officials. It reckons that the issue revolves around interference in internal policies through the prism of climate change action incorporating world organisations. It concludes that developing states may have fears regarding the overreach of developed states in their remedial actions, as seen in the Global South and Global North divide.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Shafi, Khalid Mahmood, Arif Ullah Khan and Rafaqat Islam. 2021. "Climate Change Action and State Sovereignty." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 98-108.</p> Khalid Mahmood Shafi Arif Ullah Khan Rafaqat Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 98 108 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.77 EMERGING US-JAPAN RELATIONS AND IMPACT ON EAST ASIAN SECURITY https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/78 <p><em>States with shared interests and values may form a collective identity to enact their vision and achieve security objectives against those they view as threats. Similarly, US-Japan relations have progressed for a long, not just due to the dangers posed by China and North Korea but because of their shared values of democracy, human rights, peace, and global prosperity. They share the vision of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific by forming bilateral and multilateral alliances. The US and Japan are also engaged in strategic partnerships for traditional and non-traditional security in the region, including maritime, cyber, space, and energy. This paper, therefore, focuses on East Asia due to its vulnerable security architecture and explores how the US and Japan’s security cooperation strengthens regional security by sharing values and security concerns. It highlights that the potential of both states to form a collective identity may improve the security situation in East Asia.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Khan, Arsh Shahid, Aiysha Safdar. 2021. "Emerging US-Japan Relations and Impact on East Asian Security." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 109-120.</p> Arsh Shahid Khan Aiysha Safdar Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 109 120 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.78 UN FEMALE PEACEKEEPERS: AN ANALYSIS IN TERMS OF THEIR SERVICES https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/79 <p><em>UN peacekeepers serve under harsh and dangerous conditions to help and support the most vulnerable people in conflict zones. The UN recognizes the importance of gender responses in peacekeeping engagements. It has expanded the role and contribution of women in peacekeeping and considers their role critical to enhancing overall peace and security. This paper, therefore, aims to study the cost-benefit analysis of the UN peacekeepers in terms of their services. The study is based on qualitative research using Pakistani female peacekeepers as a case study to draw analysis based on informal conversation/interviews with the former female peacekeepers, officers, and trainers. It also examines the current UN peacekeeping training module. This paper argues that the cost and benefits of the peacekeepers should be in line with the services required and concluded that focusing on peacekeeping operations is impractical without proper training and facilitation.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Naz, Farah. 2021. "UN Female Peacekeepers: An Analysis in Terms of their Services." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 121-129.</p> Farah Naz Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 121 129 10.54690/margallapapers.25.2.79 BOOK REVIEW: SAPIENS: A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMANKIND https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/84 <p>SAPIENS: A BRIEF HISTORY OF HUMANKIND</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Aleem, Sara. 2021. "Book Review: Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 130-131.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Sara Aleem Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 130 131 BOOK REVIEW: CREATION OF BANGLADESH: MYTHS EXPLODED https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/85 <p>CREATION OF BANGLADESH: MYTHS EXPLODED</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Khan, Asfand Yar. 2021. "Book Review: Creation of Bangladesh: Myths Exploded." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 132-133.</p> Asfand Yar Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 132 133 BOOK REVIEW: HOW THEY RULE THE WORLD: THE 22 SECRET STRATEGIES OF GLOBAL POWERS https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/86 <p>HOW THEY RULE THE WORLD: THE 22 SECRET STRATEGIES OF GLOBAL POWERS</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Zamani, Madina Ali. 2021. "Book Review: How they Rule the World: The 22 Secret Strategies of Global Powers." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 134-135.</p> Madina Ali Zamani Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 134 135 BOOK REVIEW: HIGHER THAN KARAKORAM: SEVEN DECADES OF PAKISTAN-CHINA PARTNERSHIP https://margallapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/87 <p>HIGHER THAN KARAKORAM: SEVEN DECADES OF PAKISTAN-CHINA PARTNERSHIP</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Malik, Talha. 2021. "Book Review: Higher than Karakoram: Seven Decades of Pakistan-China Partnership." <em>Margalla Papers </em>25 (2): 136-137.</p> Talha Malik Copyright (c) 2021 Margalla Papers https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 25 2 136 137